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Edge chip testing of ceramics Association Foundation, 16J.B. Quinn, L. Su, L. Flanders, and I.K. Lloyd, Paffenbarger Research “Edge Toughness and Material Properties Related to the Machining of Dental Ceramics,” Mach. Sci. Center, located on the Technol., 4, 291–304 (2000). grounds of the National 17J.B. Quinn and I.K. Lloyd, “Flake and Scratch Institute of Standards Size Ratios in Ceramics”; see Ref. 9, pp. 55–72. and Technology. 18J.B. Quinn, I.K. Lloyd, R.N. Katz, and G.D. Contact: george.quinn@ Quinn, “Machinability: What Does it Mean?” nist.gov Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., 24 4 511–16 (2003). 19J.B. Quinn, V. Sundar, E.E. Parry, and G.D. References of PFM and Veneered Zirconia Specimens,” Dent.Quinn, “Comparison of Edge Chipping Resistance (Credit: G.D. Quinn.) 1Y. Kalish, “Engine Testing of Mater., 26 1 13–20 (2010). Cam-Roller Followers,” Final 20J.B. Quinn and G.D. Quinn, “Material Properties Report, Detroit Diesel Corp., and Fractography of an Indirect Dental Resin Figure 11. Edge chips in a layered alumina/alumina- Oak Ridge National Laboratory Composite,” Dent. Mater., 26 6 589–99 (2010). zirconia structure. Report, ORNL/Sub/90- 21D.C. Watts, M. Issa, A. Ibrahim, J. Wakiga,SF985/1, 1990, page 5. strates, and machined or cut edges of K.M. Al-Azraqi Samadani, and N. Silikas, “Edge components. For example, Figure 11 Material Performance,” Met. Mater., 8 3 154–56 Mater., 24 1 129–33 (2008). Dent.Strength of Resin-Composite Margins,”N.J. McCormick, “Edge Flaking as a Measure of2 shows chips in an alumina/alumina– (1992). zirconia-layered structure made by tape 3E.A. Almond and N.J. McCormick, “Constant- 22K. Baroudi, N. Silikas, D.C. Watts, “Edge- .,J DentStrength of Flowable Resin-Composites,” casting.31 Layered ceramics are used in Geometry Edge-Flaking of Brittle Materials,” 36, 63–68 (2008). the electronics industry as multilayer Nature, 321 6051 53–55 (1986). 23Y. Zhang, H. Chai, J.J. W. Lee, and B.R. Lawn, substrates, capacitors, and fuel–air sen- 4N.J. McCormick and E.A. Almond, “Edge Flaking “Chipping Resistance of Graded Zirconia Ceramics sors. Laminated structures also are an (1990). for Dental Crowns,” J. Dent. Res., 3, 311–15 1 25–511.,J. Hard Materof Brittle Materials,” example of a functionally graded mate- 5B. Cotterell, J. Kamminga, and F.P. Dickson, “The (2012). rial that can mimic biological struc- Essential Mechanics of Conchoidal Flaking,” Int. J. “Effect of Calcium Hydroxide on Dentin FractureE.R. Whitbeck, G.D. Quinn, and J.B. Quinn,24 tures, such as bamboo plants, seashells, Fract., 29, 205–21 (1985). Resistance,” J. Res. NIST, 116 4 743–49 (2011). or bones. Figure 11 shows that the lay- 6M.D. Thouless, A.G. Evans, M.F. Ashby, and J.W. 25H. Chai, J.W. Lee, and B.R. Lawn, “On the ers have dramatically altered the chip Hutchinson, “The Edge Cracking and Spalling of Chipping and Splitting of Teeth,” J. Mech. Beh. Brittle Plates,” Acta Metall., 35 6 1333–41 (1987). shapes compared with those in mono- Biomed. Mater., 4, 315–21 (2011). lithic ceramics. The chipping resistance 7R. Morrell and A.J. Gant, “Edge Chipping of Hard 26J.B. Quinn, G.D. Quinn, K.M. Hoffman, “Edge dramatically improved,32 too. 293–301 (2001). Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., 33 2 (2012), in press.Chip Fracture Resistance of Dental Materials,”,19.,Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard MaterMaterials,” Edge chip testing is proving its util- 8R. Morrell, “Edge Chipping—What Does it Tell 27S. Scherrer, G.D. Quinn, and J.B. Quinn, ity in R&D labs, quality-control labs, Us?”; pp. 23–41 in Ceramic Transactions, Vol. 122, “Fractographic Failure Analysis of a Procera failure-analysis investigations, and Fractography of Glasses and Ceramics IV. Edited by AllCeram Crown Using Stereo and Scanning more. As more groups use this simple J.R. Varner and G.D. Quinn. American Ceramic Electron Microscopy,” Dent. Mater., 24, 1107–13 and versatile method, variations in (2008).Society, Westerville, Ohio, 2001. procedure are proliferating, which may “Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Ceramics: J.R. Kelly, “Failure Analysis of Ceramic ClinicalS.S. Scherrer, J.B. Quinn, G.D. Quinn, and28G. Gogotsi, S. Mudrik, and V. Galenko,9 make comparing data difficult. The Edge Fracture Tests,” Ceram. Int., 33, 315–20 Cases Using Qualitative Fractography,” Int. J. NPL group prepared a CEN (European) (2007). Prosthodont., 19 2 151–58 (2006). Technical Specification prestandard,33 10G. Gogotsi, S. Mudrik, and A. Rendtel, 29G.D. Quinn, A.A. Giuseppetti, and K.H. which offers some guidance for testing to Edge Fracture: Method and Results,” Ceram. Hoffman, “Chipping Fracture Resistance of“Sensitivity of Silicon Carbide and Other Ceramics and reporting results. It features static Eng. Sci. Proc., 25 4 237–46 (2004). Procedures and Results,” Dent. Mater., 2012, inDental CAD/CAM Restorative Materials: Part I, edge chipping as described above, but 11G. Gogotsi and S. Mudrik, “Fracture Barrier review. also scratch edge hardness testing. Estimation by the Edge Fracture Test Method,” 30H. Chai and B.R. Lawn, “A Universal Relation One shortcoming is that it assumes Ceram. Int., 35, 1871–75 (2009). for Edge Chipping from Sharp Contacts in that force–distance data are primar- 12R. Danzer, M. Hangl, and R. Paar, “Edge Brittle Materials: A Simple Means of Toughness ily linear. The reported outcome is an Chipping of Brittle Materials,” see Ref. 9, pp. Evaluation,” Acta Metall., 55, 2555–61 (2007). average edge-chipping resistance, ReA 13J.B. Quinn and V.C. Ram Mohan, “Geometry of “Laminated Ceramic Structures from OxideG. de Portu, L. Micele, and G. Pezzotti,3143–55. (Newtons per millimeter), that is the Edge Chips Formed at Different Angles,” Ceram. Systems,” Composites: Part B, 37, 556–67 (2006). average of the force–distance ratios for Eng. Sci. Proc., 26 2 85–92 (2005). 32G. D. Quinn and G. de Portu, J. Am. Ceram. many chips. In the dental field, there is 14J.B. Quinn, J.W. Hatch, and R.C. Bradt, “The Soc., to be submitted. a growing consensus to use either T (or Edge Chipping Test as an Assessment of the 33European Technical Specification, TS 843- M) or S (0.5).21,22,29 Jasper”; see Ref. 9, pp. 73–85. Properties of Monolithic Ceramics at Room9, Advanced Technical Ceramics–MechanicalThermal Alteration of Lithic Materials, Bald EagleeE About the author Test as an Assessment of the Thermal Alteration of Resistance, European Standard Committee TCG.D. Quinn and R.C. Bradt, “The Edge-ChippingTemperature, Part 9: Method of Test for Edge-Chip15 George Quinn is a research con- Lithic Materials, Novaculite,” in preparation. 184, Brussels, 2010. n sultant at the American Dental 28 www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 92, No. 1


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