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nite-mullite output. Most refractories, 60–65 percent, are used for ironmaking and steelmaking and the remainder for manufacture of chemicals, glass, nonferrous metals, and other materials. Crude steel production in the United States, which ranked third in the world in steel production, increased by six percent in the first eight months of 2012 compared with that of the same period in 2011, which increased consumption of kyanite-mullite refractories. Demand for refractories in iron and steel production is expected to grow during the next several years, depending on the rate of increase in steel production. Growth also is anticipated for refractories to produce other metals and to meet increasing production of cement, ceramics, glass, and mineral products. Lithium Globally, lithium end-use markets include ceramics and glass, batteries, lubricating greases, air treatment, metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and primary aluminum production. Demand for lithium in batteries expanded significantly in recent years with growing demand for rechargeable lithium batteries in portable electronic devices and electric tools. Batteries, especially rechargeable batteries, are expected to provide the largest growth potential for lithium compounds. Besides electronic devices, major automobile companies are developing lithium batteries for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Lithium supply security has become a top priority for Asian technology companies. Strategic alliances and joint ventures have been, and are continuing to be, established with lithium exploration companies worldwide to ensure a reliable, diversified supply of lithium for Asia’s battery suppliers and vehicle manufacturers. Platinum group metals Catalysts to decrease emissions in light- and heavy-duty vehicles continue to make up the leading demand sector for PGMs. Most motor vehicle manufacturers now routinely substitute palladium for the more expensive platinum in gasoline-engine catalytic converters. Up to 25 percent palladium is routinely substituted for platinum in diesel engines. The chemical-processing industry and petroleum-refining industry also use PGM catalysts. High-purity crystals for the electronics industry are grown in PGM crucibles. Machines for manufacturing fiberglass, liquid-crystal displays, and flat-panel displays have PGM components. Average annual prices for palladium, platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium were lower in 2012 than in 2011 because of economic concerns. Volatility throughout the year reflected external effects such as labor disputes and investor buying and selling. Submit abstracts by September 30th DGG–ACerS GOMD 2014 Aachen, Germany • May 25–30, 2014 Submit your abstract in: • Advances in Fusion & Processing of Glass • Energy Applications of Glass • Health, Medical, Biological Aspects • Fundamentals of the Glassy State and Amorphous Materials • Optical Materials & Devices Points of contact: Steve W. Martin, Iowa State University of Science & Technology, Ames, IA, swmartin@iastate.edu Gang Chen, Ohio University, Athens, OH, cheng3@ohio.edu www.dgg-gomd.org call for papers American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 92, No. 6 | www.ceramics.org 27


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