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State of raw materials 2013 in the Asian and South American agricultural, ceramic, and glass markets. In particular, boron consumption in the global fiberglass industry was projected to increase by seven percent annually through 2013, spurred by a projected 19 percent increase in Chinese consumption. World consumption of borates is projected to reach 2.0 million tons by 2014, compared with 1.5 million metric tons in 2010, with most of the increased demand coming from glass and ceramics industries. China is expected to increase imports from Chile, Russia, Turkey, and the US during the next several years. Continued investment in new refineries and technologies and the continued increase in demand were expected to fuel growth in world production during the next several years. Cement US plants produced about 71 million tons of portland cement and 2.0 million tons of masonry cement at 98 plants in 35 states. Although the economic recovery helped boost production levels above 2009–2011 levels, production continued to be very low compared with levels during 2002–2007, when it exceeded 90 million tons per year. Sales volume in 2012 was 51 million tons less than the record level achieved in 2005. The cement market generated $7.5 billion in sales, and most of it was used to make concrete, worth at least $41 billion. Manufacturing clinker for cement releases a great deal of carbon dioxide. The US Environmental Protection Agency published the results of the first mandatory reporting survey (2010) of the cement industry’s greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide reduction strategies by the cement industry mainly aim at reducing emissions per ton of cement product rather than by a plant overall. Approaches include installation of more fuel-efficient kilns, partial substitution of noncarbonate sources of calcium oxide in the kiln raw materials, and partial substitution of supplementary cementitious materials, such as pozzolans, for portland cement in the finished cement products and in concrete. Many portland cement substitute materials, especially fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag, react with the lime released by the hydration of portland cement and develop good hydraulic cementitious properties. Clays In 2012 about 180 companies operated approximately 750 clay pits or quarries and recovered about 25.7 million tons valued at $1.57 billion. Specific clays and products made from them include ball clay for floor and wall tile, sanitaryware, and other uses; bentonite for drilling mud, absorbents, iron ore pelletizing, foundry sand bond, and other uses; common clay for brick, lightweight aggregate, cement, and other uses; fire clay for heavy clay products, refractory products, and other uses; fuller’s earth for absorbents and other uses; and kaolin for paper and other uses. Increased commercial and residential housing construction is likely to slightly increase sales of common clay and fire clay for heavy clay products and ball clay for ceramic tile and sanitaryware manufacture. Kaolin production is likely to increase slightly as ceramic markets increase and paper markets stabilize. Feldspar US feldspar production in 2012 was valued at about $39 million. Feldspar is ground to about 20 mesh for glassmaking and to 200 mesh or finer for most ceramic and filler applications. During 2012, glassmakers used about 70 percent of domestic feldspar supplies, with 30 percent going to pottery and other uses. The glass industry uses most of the feldspar it consumes to manufacture container glass, which was a moderately stable industry despite some competition in baby food, fruit juices, mineral water, and wine container segments. Additionally, increased use of postconsumer glass collected through local government and neighborhood recycling programs competes with traditional raw materials, such as feldspar. Residential flat glass markets improved slightly in 2012, but sluggishly. Automotive glass markets increased also. In 2013 fiberglass consumption for thermal insulation is forecast to expand in line with housing and commercial building construction in the US through 2013. Another growing segment in the glass industry is solar glass, used in the production of solar cells. Iron and steel The iron and steel industry and ferrous foundries produced goods in 2012 valued at $112 billion. About 48 companies produce raw steel in the US at about 108 minimills representing a combined production capability of about 118 million tons. Most are located in the established steelmaking Great Lakes region encompassing Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. China accounted for about 47 percent of world steel production. According to the World Steel Association, world apparent steel consumption (ASC) was expected to increase by 2.1 percent to 1.41 billion tons in 2012, and increase by 3.2 percent to 1.46 billion tons in 2013. ASC in China, the world’s leading producer and consumer of steel, is expected to increase by 2.5 percent and by 3.1 percent in 2012 and 2013, to 640 million tons and 659 million tons, respectively. ASC for North America is expected to increase by 7.5 percent in 2012 to 130 million tons and by 3.6 percent in 2013 to 135 million tons. ASC for India is expected to increase by 5.5 percent and 5.0 percent in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The global steel industry has been struggling from the impact of the debt crisis in Europe and slowing demand and oversupply in China. Kyanite and related Commercially produced mullite is synthetic, produced from sintering or fusing such feedstock materials as kyanite or bauxitic kaolin. Natural mullite occurrences typically are rare and uneconomic to mine. Refractories consume about 90 percent of the kya- 26 www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 92, No. 6


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